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Barbour County is a county located in north-central West Virginia, USA. It was formed in 1843 when the region was still part of the state of Virginia. Philippi, the county seat, was chartered in 1844. Both county and city were named for Philip Pendleton Barbour (1783-1841), a U.S. Congressman from Virginia and Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. The Battle of Philippi, also known as the "Philippi Races", was fought in Barbour County on June 3, 1861. Although a minor action, it is generally considered the first land engagement of the American Civil War. Alderson-Broaddus College, an American Baptist institution, is located in the county. The College's Physician Assistant (PA) program is one of the oldest and best established in the world.

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